Effects of different fine aggregate on concrete strength

  • Maina Kiambigi Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology
  • A. O. GWAYA Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology
  • D. O. Koteng Technical University of Kenya


Fine aggregate has been extensively used in the construction industry as a key component of concrete production. Although river sand is one of the major sources of fine aggregate, different sources exhibit different properties by virtue of the geological formation of the drainage basin. Further, the use of river sand as the source of fine aggregate has resulted in over-exploitation leading to depletion and environmental degradation. This has led to exploration of alternative sources to safeguard depletion and reduce the negative impacts on the environment. This research was conducted on a variety of river sands and alternative fine aggregates to assess their suitability for concrete manufacture. A quantitative experimental approach was adopted to test the Physical, chemical and mineralogical properties of fine aggregates sourced from Machakos, Mwingi, Naivasha and Kajiado and the resultant concrete strength after 7, 14 and 28 days recorded. The fineness modulus of all the material samples ranged from 1.92 to 3.66, specific gravity 1.73 to 2.27 and silt content 2.06% to 11.9%. All the samples fell within the overall grading envelope. The silicon dioxide concentration ranged from 65% to 80%, Aluminium oxide 9% to 19% and Calcium oxide 1.3% to 2.5%. Machakos sand had the highest Silicon dioxide and calcium oxide concentration of 80% and 2.5% respectively, while quarry dust had the highest aluminium oxide concentration of 19%. It was observed that concrete produced from natural river sand obtained from Mwingi , Kajiado and Machakos achieved strengths of 41.899N/mm2 , 37.173N/mm 2 and  33.645N/mm 2 respectively comparative to 30 N/mm2 target  characteristic strength after 28 days. On the other hand, concrete  produced using fine aggregates obtained from Mlolongo rock sand,  Naivasha sand and Mlolongo Quarry dust achieved strengths of 28.682  N/mm 2 , 28.411 N/mm2 and 27.661 N/mm2 respectively falling short of the requisite compressive strength after 28 days.
Keywords— Concrete mix design, Concrete strength, Fine aggregates.
Oct 16, 2018
How to Cite
KIAMBIGI, Maina; GWAYA, A. O.; KOTENG, D. O.. Effects of different fine aggregate on concrete strength. Proceedings of Sustainable Research and Innovation Conference, [S.l.], p. 135-140, oct. 2018. ISSN 2079-6226. Available at: <http://sri.jkuat.ac.ke/ojs/index.php/proceedings/article/view/695>. Date accessed: 31 mar. 2020.